- The hard, flat translucent covering near the tip of a human finger and toe, useful for scratching and fine manipulation
- Aymara: sillu
- Bosnian: nokat
- Croatian: nokat
- Crimean Tatar: tırnak
- Czech: nehet
- Danish: negl
- Dutch: vingernagel , nagel
- Finnish: sormen kynsi
- French: ongle
- German: Fingernagel
- Guarani: poapen
- Gujarati: નખ (nakh)
- Hindi: नाख़ुन (nākhun)
- Italian: unghia
- Japanese: 爪 (つめ, tsume)
- Korean: 손톱 (sontop)
- Latin: unguis
- Mundurukú: ibunũ
- Pirahã: xopói
- Polish: paznokieć
- Pitjantjatjara: , miltji
- Portuguese: unha
- Quechua: sillu
- Russian: ноготь (nógot')
- Spanish: uña
- Swedish: fingernagel , nagel
- Telugu: గోరు (gOru)
- Urdu: (nākhun)
Parts of the nailAnatomically fingernails and toenails are made of a tough protein called keratin and have many different parts:
- The free edge is the part of the nail that extends past the finger, beyond the nail plate. There are no nerve endings in the nail - this is the growing part of the nail still under the skin at the nail's proximal end.
- eponychium or cuticle, is the fold of skin at the proximal end of the nail.
- paronychium is the fold of skin on the sides of the nail.
- hyponychium is the attachment between the skin of the finger or toe and the distal end of the nail.
- nail plate is the hard and translucent portion, composed of keratin.
- nail bed is the adherent connective tissue that underlies the nail, often colloquially referred to as the "quick."
- lunula is the crescent shaped whitish area of the nail bed (when visible)
- nail fold a fold of hard skin overlapping the base and sides of a fingernail or toenail.
In common usage the word nail usually refers to the nail plate only.
Nails grow at an average rate of 3 millimetres a month. Fingernails require 3 to 6 months to regrow completely. Toenails require 12 to 18 months. Actual growth rate is dependent upon age, gender, season, exercise level, and hereditary factors. Contrary to popular belief, nails do not continue to grow after death; the skin dehydrates and tightens, making the nails (and hair) appear to grow.
This growth record can show the history of recent health and physiological imbalances, and has been used as a diagnostic tool since ancient times. Major illness will cause a deep transverse groove to form across the nails. Discoloration, thinning, thickening, brittleness, splitting, grooves, Mees' lines, small white spots, receded lunula, clubbing (convex), flatness, spooning (concave) can indicate illness in other areas of the body, nutrient deficiencies, drug reaction or poisoning, or merely local injury. Nails can also become thickened (onychogryphosis), loosened (onycholysis), infected with fungus (onychomycosis) or degenerative (onychodystrophy); for further information see nail diseases.
Health and careNails can dry out, just like skin. They can also peel, break and be infected. Toe infections, for instance, can be caused or exacerbated by dirty socks, specific types of aggressive exercise, tight footwear and walking unprotected in an unclean environment.
Manicures and pedicures are health and cosmetic procedures to groom, trim, and paint the nails and manage callouses. They require various tools such as cuticle scissors, nail scissors, nail clippers, and nail files.
Nail tools used by different people may transmit infections. Regarding nail tools such as files, "If they're used on different people, these tools may spread nail fungi, staph bacteria or viruses", warns Rick Lopes, a spokesperson for the California Board of Barbering and Cosmetology.ref germs In fact, over 100 bacterial skin infections in 2000 were traced to footbaths in nail salons. To avoid this, new improved contactless tools can be used, for example, gel and cream cuticle removers instead of cuticle scissors.
Biting the nails often indicates internal tension, stress, boredom, hunger, or it may simply be a habit.
Nail biting can result in the transportation of germs that are buried under the surface of the nail into the mouth. It may also cause excessive or abnormal wear of tooth enamel.
Someone whose occupation is to cut any type of nail, apply artificial nails and care for nails is sometimes called a nail technician. The place where a nail technician works may be called a nail salon or nail shop (also "nailshop").
Painting the nails with nail polish (also known as nail lacquer) is a common practice dating back to at least 3000 B.C.
Ornamented fake nails are sometimes used to display designs, such as stars or sparkles, on nails. They are also used to make nails look longer.
Medical testHealth care and pre-hospital care providers (paramedics) often use the fingernail beds as a cursory indicator of distal tissue perfusion of individuals who may be dehydrated or in shock. However, this test is not considered reliable in adults. This is known as the CRT or blanch test.
Procedure: briefly depress the fingernail bed gently with a finger. This will briefly turn the nailbed white; the normal pink colour should be restored within a second or two. Delayed return to pink colour can be an indicator of certain shock states such as hypovolemia
fingernails in Arabic: ظفر (تشريح)
fingernails in Aymara: Sillu
fingernails in Catalan: Ungla
fingernails in Czech: Nehet
fingernails in German: Nagel (Anatomie)
fingernails in Estonian: Küüs
fingernails in Spanish: Uña
fingernails in Esperanto: Ungo
fingernails in Persian: ناخن
fingernails in French: Ongle
fingernails in Korean: 발톱
fingernails in Ido: Unglo
fingernails in Indonesian: Kuku
fingernails in Italian: Unghia
fingernails in Hebrew: ציפורן
fingernails in Javanese: Kuku
fingernails in Latin: Unguis
fingernails in Lithuanian: Nagai
fingernails in Hungarian: Köröm
fingernails in Dutch: Nagel (anatomie)
fingernails in Japanese: 爪
fingernails in Norwegian: Negl
fingernails in Norwegian Nynorsk: Nagl
fingernails in Occitan (post 1500): Ongla
fingernails in Pangasinan: Kuko
fingernails in Polish: Paznokieć
fingernails in Portuguese: Unha
fingernails in Quechua: Sillu
fingernails in Russian: Ногти
fingernails in Simple English: Fingernail
fingernails in Slovak: Necht
fingernails in Slovenian: Noht
fingernails in Finnish: Kynsi
fingernails in Swedish: Naglar
fingernails in Tagalog: Kuko
fingernails in Tajik: Нохун
fingernails in Turkish: Tırnak
fingernails in Võro: Küüds
fingernails in Yiddish: נאגל (אנאטאמיע)
fingernails in Yoruba: Èkánná
fingernails in Dimli: Nenıg
fingernails in Chinese: 指甲